Professor Helle Metslang, University of Tartu
Senior Lecturer Tõnu Seilenthal, University of Tartu
Professor János Pusztay, University of West Hungary
The main objective of the thesis is to map the functional equivalents in the Estonian and Hungarian mood systems in the subordinate clause from a synchronic perspective. The study also examines the Estonian subordinate clause containing the da-infinitive predicate as a frequent subordinate clause type.
Treatises of Hungarian grammar traditionally speak of indicative, conditional and imperative; Estonian grammatical tradition distinguishes between indicative, conditional, imperative, jussive and quotative. In both Hungarian and Estonian there is one particular mood which has a wider range of functions than the others: the Hungarian imperative and the Estonian conditional. Both moods have several common functions: forming reported command and the predicate of the final clause, expressing the role of the subjunctive. The specific characteristic of the Estonian mood system is the possibility of expressing the mode of reporting (quotative and jussive).
Analysis of the research material confirms the above mentioned common functions of the Hungarian imperative and the Estonian conditional in subordinate clauses. Also the Hungarian and Estonian conditional (express irreal/hypothetical situations), the Hungarian imperative and Estonian da-infinitive predicate (form reported command and the predicate of the final clause) as well as the Hungarian conditional and Estonian da-infinitive predicate (in certain comparative clauses) share common features in subordinate clauses. In many cases marked moods can also be the equivalent of the indicative, mostly because the same modal meaning can be expressed by a marked mood or by various other means of expressing modality.
In some cases the equivalent of the complex sentence in one of the languages is a simple sentence in the other. If the source language is the Hungarian, the subordinate clause is usually inserted into the Estonian simple sentence as an infinitive construction or attribute; in the opposite direction the only possible equivalent of the Estonian subordinate clause is an attribute.